METHODOLOGY/DATA COLLECTION TOOLS
The Study was conducted in District Budgam with special focus to get representation from Rural, Urban and semi urban areas.
The methodology of research study is based on collection and analysis of both primary and secondary data. Primary data would be collected from the members Head teachers, Teachers, Parents, Students, Out of school girls, academicians and educational administrators questionnaire has been obtain to obtain the data. Structured interview has been prepared for administrators, academician’s etc. The secondary data is collected from office records, institutional plans and progress reports etc.
Following questionnaires have been prepared.
- Questionnaires for Teachers/Head Teachers.
- Questionnaires for Parents.
- Questionnaires for Students.
- Questionnaires for out of school Girls.
These Questionnaires are scripted as under:
Data Analysis & Visualization
For an extensive analysis, all the Data was divided into four following thematic factors:
- Economic factors
- Socio-culture factors
- Physical factors
- Environmental factors
At the same time each factor is divided into sub factors. The comparison of data was made at two levels, initially with in major factor
- Economic Factor is divided into following sub factors;
- Cost of education
- More Focus on income generation skills
- Involvement of girls in Sibling care and domestic help.
- Absence of skill imparted education.
Cost of education as a bottleneck to girl education
The cost of education becomes dilemma for families. Analysis on teachers , parents, students and never enrolled girls shows that this factor was extremely high in Rural areas slightly low in semi urban areas and very low in urban areas. The parents in rural areas consider the importance of girl education but find it hard to let their daughters complete even school education. Parents in rural areas are engaged in labour and agricultural activities for subsistence living hence parents cannot afford cost of schooling like even meager school fees, shoes, clothes and other stationary.
- More Focus on income generation skills as a bottle neck to girl Education
Due to unavailability of financial resources parents want their daughters to become skillful and able to survive on their own they think skill are more useful in the long run as compared to education. The mean score comparison with regard to urbanization that rural areas lay at maximum level on response scale were as semi urban areas fall bit low and urban areas very low. The parents in rural areas shared that education is a long term plan and they can not provide this opportunity to their daughters for long. So it seems better to focus on incoming generation skills by giving them training of stitching, sewing, embroidery work and carpet weaving.
- Poverty as a bottle neck to girl education
Access to education is widely dependent on the economic position of people however if economic stability gives easy access to the opportunity of education at the same time economic instability is a big barrier to girls education. The analysis showed that poverty plays a vital role in keeping girls away from schools. The mean score value for rural areas was extremely high as compared to semi urban and urban areas which were relatively bit less. But the fact remains that poverty is a big issue for the people of rural, semi urban and urban areas.
- Absence of skill imparted education.
- Involvement of girls in Sibling care and domestic help
Many a girl students left school/education owing to support family not only at home but also in agricultural fields as well. Besides many school going girls migrate to green pastures along with their parents with their herd. it has been seen particularly in rural and semi urban areas that the parents remain busy in fields. The young school going girls are taking care not only of their younger brothers and sisters but also work in kitchen. The persistent continuity of this practice results in discontinuing girl education. The sibling care and domestic help so far as girl dropout and never enrolment is concerned is highest in rural areas followed by semi urban and lowest in urban areas.
- Socio-culture factors: Socio-cultural factors are sub divided in to following sub factors.
- Societal beliefs and Social pressure.
- Child marriage
- Strained Family System.
- Extended (Large) family system.
- Gender Discrimination.
(I)Social beliefs and Social pressure:
: In depth interviews and data analysis clearly showed that Social beliefs and Social pressure are big barriers to girl education. The mean score comparison of this issue showed that the impact of Social beliefs and Social pressure is very high in rural areas where as at the midpoint in semi urban areas and negligible in urban areas.
In rural areas parents claimed that the society where they live influence a lot on their decisions and they would have to face criticism from neighbors and relatives if they educate their girls further. Some parents think that educating a girl is not a good investment for future as she after getting married gives no benefit to their parents. But in urban and semi urban areas the effect of social beliefs and Social pressure was found less because in those areas parents are more sensitized towards girl education.
- Illiteracy: In depth interviews and data analysis clearly showed that illiteracy is a big barrier to girl education. The mean score comparison of this issue showed that the impact illiteracy is very high in rural and in semi urban areas where as in urban areas due to rapid urbanization and other facilities available there rendered parents aware about the importance of education therefore the impact of illiteracy was found very low responsible for drop out and never enrolment of girls in schools.
- Child marriage: Child marriage is one of the bottle necks to girl education. Though to a great extent the evil of child marriage is discontinued but still in some rural packets of the district Budgam this evil is practiced .it was found that the girl students from class 8th are being married with the result the girl students did not continue their education. The early child marriage has led to series of physical problems for such girls.
In far rural areas some customary practices like “Aun dote” and “bogh system” encourages child marriage .
The data analysis clearly showed that child marriage is a bottle neck to girl education in far rural areas but in semi urban and urban areas its impact is negligible. However it was found while surveying that the trend of child marriage is day by day discouraging.